Beyond graduation rates: Conceptualizing liberatory educational outcomes for colleges and universities

Gina Ann Garcia
Colleges and universities in the United States are expected to deliver “normative academic outcomes” which are those that are acceptable and desirable to the general public. This includes accessibility, affordability, and degree attainment. They are also accountable for delivering “neoliberal outcomes” such as upward mobility, life-long learning, and workforce development. Yet postsecondary institutions have historically delivered these normative and neoliberal outcomes inequitably for Black, Indigenous, Latinx, and Pacific Islander students. While colleges and universities must...
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