Intrinsic carrier multiplication in layered Bi2O2Se avalanche photodiodes with gain bandwidth product exceeding 1 GHz

Vinod K. Sangwan, Joohoon Kang, David Lam, J. Tyler Gish, Spencer A. Wells, Jan Luxa, James P. Male, G. Jeffrey Snyder, Zdeněk Sofer & Mark C. Hersam
Emerging layered semiconductors present multiple advantages for optoelectronic technologies including high carrier mobilities, strong light-matter interactions, and tunable optical absorption and emission. Here, metal-semiconductor-metal avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are fabricated from Bi2O2Se crystals, which consist of electrostatically bound [Bi2O2]2+ and [Se]2− layers. The resulting APDs possess an intrinsic carrier multiplication factor up to 400 at 7 K with a responsivity gain exceeding 3,000 A/W and bandwidth of ~ 400 kHz at a visible wavelength of 515.6...
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