The Physicochemical and Systems Level Implications of Using CO2 as a Working Fluid in Hydraulically Fractured Shale Gas Wells

Rodney Wilkins
The rapid growth of natural gas production from unconventional gas shale formations over the past decade has changed the US energy landscape dramatically. This growth has been enabled by directional horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies, which allow engineers to access larger portions of a host rock and improve its permeability. The most effective hydraulic fracturing operations use millions of gallons of water at each wellhead. Even though much of this water is returned and...
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