Polyrhachis (Myrma) viola sp. nov. from Mangkagangi Island and a near locality on Mindanao Island, both in Surigao del Sur Province, the Philippines, is described and illustrated. It is the fourth-named species in the P. cyaniventris species group which comprises striking blue-coloured ants that are endemic to the Philippines. In addition, Polyrhachis (Myrma) cyaniventris F. Smith, 1858 is reported from Cebu Island, and thus the biogeographical subregion of Greater Negros-Panay, for the first time.
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