A study of the thermal field surrounding buried district heating pipes.

Helen E. Reeve
Traditional deep buried water and sewer services in northern communities can be prohibitively expensive due to deep frost penetration. Alternative municipal systems can also be uneconomic owing to cost-intensive freeze protection schemes. The integration of district heating (DH) systems with domestic services allows shallow burial of all services in a common trench by using the waste heat from the DH pipes as freeze protection for the nearby municipal lines, thus providing an economically attractive solution....
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