Black-tailed deer and what they fear: vigilance responses to predator vocalizations as a window into current and historical predation pressure

Bryce Ahn, Marisol Morales, Ian Perrett, Mika Post, Francis Ulep & Yunqing Sara Ye
Predation is a potent ecological and evolutionary force, shaping the behavior of animals to minimize risk. Behavior itself can therefore provide clues into the predation pressure experienced by a population. We investigated anti-predator vigilance behavior in a California coastal population of black-tailed deer in response to vocal cues from three predator species of varying current and historical risk: grey wolf, coyote, and red-tail hawk. Vigilance was measured as the proportion of a herd alerting to...
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