Definition of functionals of the geopotential and their calculation from spherical harmonic models : theory and formulas used by the calculation service of the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM),

Franz Barthelmes
The intention of this article is to present the definitions of different functionals of the Earth's gravity field and possibilities for their approximative calculation from a mathematical representation of the outer potential. [...]More or less, what is compiled here is well-known in physical geodesy but distributed over a lot of articles and books which are not cited here. In the first instance this text is targeted at non-geodesists and it should be "stand-alone readable".
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