Frictional properties of simulated shale-coal fault gouges: Implications for induced seismicity in source rocks below Europe’s largest gas field

Jinfeng Liu, Luuk Bernd Hunfeld, André Rik Niemeijer & Christopher James Spiers
We report 21 frictional sliding experiments performed on simulated fault gouges prepared from shale-coal mixtures. Our aim was to investigate the effects of local coal seam smearing on the frictional properties and induced seismogenic potential of faults cutting the Upper Carboniferous source rocks underlying the Groningen gas reservoir (Netherlands). We used shale/siltstone core recovered from beneath the Groningen reservoir plus Polish bituminous coal of similar age and origin to coals locally present in the Groningen...
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