Left Thoracoscopic Approach for Convergent AF Ablation: How to do Everything From the Same Side.

Alexander Moiroux-Sahraoui & Konstantinos Zannis
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased risk of stroke, heart failure and all-cause mortality [1]. When it comes to treating persistent AF, the Cox-Maze procedure is the gold standard. However, it presents significant morbidity and mortality rates. The classical endocardial ablation approach appears to be safer but has limited efficacy to treat long lasting persistent AF [2]. Thoracoscopic hybrid epicardial-endocardial ablation technique proved to be effective and safe to treat long lasting persistent AF...
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