Challenging Case: Ventricular Septal Defect Device Removal

Brian Elliot Kogon & Craig A. Mathis
ObjectivesTreatment of perimembranous ventricular septal defects (VSD) has traditionally been surgical. Surgery most often includes midline sternotomy, cardiopulmonary bypass with cardioplegic arrest, and patch closure of the defect. Devices have become available that allow for percutaneous perimembranous ventricular septal defect closure in the cardiac catheterization lab, thereby eliminating the risks of open heart surgery. Risks of device closure include incomplete closure, heart block, and interference with aortic and tricuspid valve function.MethodsThe authors present a challenging...
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