The many layers of BOLD. The effect of hypercapnic and hyperoxic stimuli on macro- and micro-vascular compartments quantified by CVR, M, and CBV across cortical depth

Wouter Schellekens, Alex A Bhogal, Emiel CA Roefs, Mario G Báez-Yáñez, Jeroen CW Siero & Natalia Petridou
Ultra-high field functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offers the spatial resolution to measure neuronal activity at the scale of cortical layers. However, cortical depth dependent vascularization differences, such as a higher prevalence of macro-vascular compartments near the pial surface, have a confounding effect on depth-resolved blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI signals. In the current study, we use hypercapnic and hyperoxic breathing conditions to quantify the influence of all venous vascular and micro-vascular compartments on laminar BOLD...
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