Antiretroviral therapy adherence patterns, virological suppression, and emergence of drug resistance: A nested case–control study from Uganda and South Africa

Anisha Tyagi, Yao Tong, Dustin J Rabideau, Zahra Reynolds, Tulio De Oliveira, Richard Lessells, Gideon Amanyire, Catherine Orrell, Stephen Asiimwe, Benjamin Chimukangara, Jennifer Giandhari, Sureshnee Pillay, Jessica E Haberer & Mark J Siedner
BackgroundRelationships between distinct antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence patterns and risk of drug resistance are not well understood.MethodsWe conducted a nested case–control analysis within a longitudinal cohort study of individuals initiating efavirenz-based ART. Primary outcomes of interest, measured at 6 and 12 months after treatment initiation, were: 1) virologic suppression, 2) virologic failure with resistance, and 3) virologic failure without resistance. Our primary exposure of interest was ART adherence, measured over the 6 months before each...
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