Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Heart Failure: Focus on Nonclassical Angiotensin Pathways as Novel Upstream Targets Regulating Aldosterone

Urszula Tyrankiewicz, Agnieszka Kij, Tasnim Mohaissen, Mariola Olkowicz, Ryszard T. Smolenski & Stefan Chlopicki
Aldosterone plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure, body fluid, and electrolyte homeostasis. Overactivation of aldosterone/mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway leads to hypertension, atherosclerosis, vascular damage, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease and is involved in many other diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, fibrosis, and metabolic disorders. Aldosterone is a final product of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and its production is activated by angiotensin II, while angiotensin-(1–7) negatively regulates angiotensin II-mediated aldosterone...
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