Structured proficiency based progression phacoemulsification training curriculum using virtual reality simulator technology

The current method of surgical training is based on the Halstedian model where novice surgeons learn by observing and performing surgery under supervision. Cataract extraction by phacoemulsification is a type of minimally invasive surgery where direct observation is inadequate in revealing how things are done. Operating under the microscope takes away the direct hand-eye coordination. During the operation, a novice surgeon has to pay disproportionate amount of attention to psychomotor performance, depth and spatial judgment,...
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