Emergence of the East-Central-South-African genotype of Chikungunya virus in Brazil and the city of Rio de Janeiro may have occurred years before surveillance detection

Thiago Moreno L. Souza, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Edson Delatorre, Giselle Barbosa-Lima, Raul Leal Faria Luiz, Alexandre Vizzoni, Komal Jain, Milene Mesquita Miranda, Nishit Bhuva, Jan F. Gogarten, James Ng, Riddhi Thakkar, Andrea Surrage Calheiros, Ana Paula Teixeira Monteiro, Fernando A. Bozza, Diogo A. Tschoeke, Luciana Leomil, Marcos Cesar Lima De Mendonça, Cintia Damasceno Dos Santos Rodrigues, Maria C. Torres, Ana Maria Bispo De Filippis, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Fabiano L. Thompson, Christina Lemos, Betina Durovni … & Nischay Mishra
Brazil, which is hyperendemic for dengue virus (DENV), has had recent Zika (ZIKV) and (CHIKV) Chikungunya virus outbreaks. Since March 2016, CHIKV is the arbovirus infection most frequently diagnosed in Rio de Janeiro. In the analysis of 1835 syndromic patients, screened by real time RT-PCR, 56.4% of the cases were attributed to CHIKV, 29.6% to ZIKV, and 14.1% to DENV-4. Sequence analyses of CHIKV from sixteen samples revealed that the East-Central-South-African (ECSA) genotype of CHIKV...
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