Math self-concept, grades, and achievement test scores. Long-term reciprocal effects across five waves and three achievement tracks

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This study examines reciprocal effects between self-concept and achievement by considering a long time span covering grades 5 through 9. Extending previous research on the reciprocal effects model (REM), this study tests (1) the assumption of developmental equilibrium as time-invariant cross-lagged paths from self-concept to achievement and from achievement to self-concept, (2) the generalizability of reciprocal relations when using school grades and standardized achievement test scores as achievement indicators, and (3) the invariance of findings...
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