Putin and Putnam: Interpreting Russian Military Activity Through a Three Player, Two-Level Game

Nathan M. Colvin
Is Vladimir Putin a bad strategist, perhaps irrational? Previous military activity by Russia, such as the annexation of Crimea of 2014, yielded limited international gains, at a significant economic and reputational cost. Yet as the 2022 invasion of Ukraine shows, Putin is willing to commit military power, despite the cost of sanctions and other possible retaliation. This three-player simultaneous game, originally created in June, 2021, demonstrates how domestic and international considerations of President Vladimir Putin...
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