Heaven across the water: migration, memory, and identity of North Korea’s Zainichi returnees

Markus P. S. Bell
Between 1959-1984, approximately 87,000 Koreans and 6,000 Japanese spouses migrated from Japan to North Korea as part of a ‘repatriation project’. This project was organised and facilitated by the Japanese and North Korean governments with the collaboration of the International Committee of the Red Cross. ‘Repatriates’ endured severe deprivation in North Korea. In the last decade, some 300 people have returned to Japan, completing a migratory loop between the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese Archipelago....
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