Local administration in northern Chekiang and the response to the pirate invasions of 1553-1556

Merrilyn Anne Fitzpatrick
Chia-hsing in northern Chekiang was part of one of the most advanced and prosperous sectors of the Ming empire. The pirate invasions of 1553 to 1556 were the direct outcome of the extra-legal overseas trade which had arisen in the region as a consequence of its expansive economic capacity. Contradictions within the conduct of overseas trade suddenly changed into large-scale piracy when the Ming government re-enforced the ban on overseas trade and travel. The crisis...
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