Optimization of natural organic matter removal by a hybrid ED-NF/RO membrane system

Soyoon Kum &
Natural Organic Matter (NOM) reacts with Cl₂ and other disinfectants to form potentially carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water. NOM can be effectively removed by nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), but NOM fouling on the membrane is the major challenge for applying membrane processes to natural waters. Furthermore, the presence of divalent cations has been shown to increase fouling associated with NOM. Therefore, pretreatment for the removal of cations prior to NF or...
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