Water, electrolytes, vitamins and trace elements – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 7

H. K. Biesalski, S. C. Bischoff, H. J. Boehles, A. Muehlhoefer & Working Group For Developing The Guidelines For Parenteral Nutrition Of The German Association For Nutritional Medicine
A close cooperation between medical teams is necessary when calculating the fluid intake of parenterally fed patients. Fluids supplied parenterally, orally and enterally, other infusions, and additional fluid losses (e.g. diarrhea) must be considered. Targeted diagnostic monitoring (volume status) is required in patients with disturbed water or electrolyte balance. Fluid requirements of adults with normal hydration status is approximately 30–40 ml/kg body weight/d, but fluid needs usually increase during fever. Serum electrolyte concentrations should be...