Implantation failures and suboptimal positions of gravitational valves. Rather the rule than the exception – with a massive impact on shunt dysfunction

B. Vienenkötter, A. Unterberg & A. Aschoff
Objective: The function of gravitational (g)-valves is strictly dependent on the angle of vertical alignment. Therefore they require an orientation strictly parallel to the longitudinal body axis. Despite its decisive role only 1 out of 166 g-valve-papers (incl. running studies) systematically investigated[for full text, please go to the a.m. URL]