Monte Carlo calculations of dose to medium and dose to water for carbon ion beams in various media

R. Herrmann, J. Petersen & N. Bassler
Background: In clinical practice the quantity dose to water (Dw) is used as a reference standard for dosimeters and treatment planning systems. Treatment planning systems usually rely on analytical representation of the particle beam, which are normally expressed as dose with respect to water. The[for full text, please go to the a.m. URL]