e-VAS (electronical Visuell Analog Scale) for patient pain management in neurosurgery

Thomas Michalski, Ulrich G. Hofmann, Volker M. Tronnier & Matteo Mario Bonsanto
Objective: The visual analogue scale (VAS) is an accepted tool in neurosurgical pain management of patients. The standardised scale is paper based. A face of a smiley is the indicator for the current pain level of a patient. We developed a digital pain management system the e-VAS (electronic Visual[for full text, please go to the a.m. URL]