Learning curve and first experiences in intraoperative 3D-fluoroscopy-guided navigated pedicle screw placement

Y.M. Ryang, T. Obermüller, F. Ringel, J. Villard, J. Gempt, S. Krieg & B. Meyer
Objective: Aim of this study was to evaluate accuracy, revision and complication rate, technical obstacles and learning curve of 3D-fluoroscopy navigated pedicle screw placement in the thoracolumbar spine. Methods: Between January and November 2011 685 pedicle screws (74 thoracic / 611 lumbar;[for full text, please go to the a.m. URL]