Awake craniotomy without any anaesthesia or sedation – The awake-awake technique

M. Seemann, N. Weitl, C. Kerscher, C. Doenitz & E. Hansen
Objective: The asleep-awake-technique generally used for awake craniotomy involves narcotics that carry the risk of hemodynamic instabilities, respiratory depression, and airway obstruction. Agitation or disorientation may occur, and alertness, co-operation and test performance can be impaired. We questioned[for full text, please go to the a.m. URL]