50 years of clinical application of deep brain stimulation for chronic refractory pain syndromes – Past – Present – Future!?

D. Rasche & V.M. Tronnier
Objective: The treatment of refractory chronic pain syndromes was always difficult and, in specific cases, frustrating. Therefore, a number of invasive procedures have been tried in order to influence chronic pain. During the last century, a change in therapy occurred and destructive procedures at the[for full text, please go to the a.m. URL]