Evidence of Effectiveness, Harms and Recommendations for Opioids for Chronic Pain

J. Harris & K. Hegmann
Background: Opioid prescription rates, and related emergency visits, fractures, adverse effects and mortality rates have risen sharply in the US over the last 10 years. Many clinicians are now seeking guidance about the appropriate use and risk to benefit balance of opioid treatment for chronic non-cancer[for full text, please go to the a.m. URL]