Intraoperative 3D control of screw positions using a standard C-arm

Sven R. Kantelhardt, Amr Nimer, David Eum, Jens Conrad & Alf Giese
Objective: Recent techniques, such as image-guided- or robot-assisted screw insertion have helped to reduce the rate of misplaced pedicle screws. However, most centers control the resulting screw position by intraoperative 2D fluoroscopy and 3D reconstructions are viewed only on postoperative CTs. While[for full text, please go to the a.m. URL]