Improved outcome of microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm by intraoperative EMG monitoring of lateral spread

Barbara Bischoff, Oliver Ganslandt, Ramin Naraghi, Michael Buchfelder & Peter Hastreiter
Objective: The treatment of hemifacial spasm using microvascular decompression (MVD) is still challenging regarding postoperative outcome. A limitation of this treatment is insufficient improvement in a certain proportion of patients. Therefore, botulinum toxin has emerged as an alternative treatment[for full text, please go to the a.m. URL]