Implementation of multimodal intraoperative neuromonitoring into an established setting of awake craniotomy

Andrea Szelényi, Samis M. A. Zella, Marion Rapp, Maria Smuga, Hans-Jakob Steiger & Michael Sabel
Objective: Neurosurgery of tumors adjacent to language and motor-associated cortical areas and subcortical pathways require intraoperative assessment. In awake patients, cortical and subcortical mapping are commonly performed with 60 Hz stimulation (Penfield-technique). Stimulation-related seizures,[for full text, please go to the a.m. URL]