Infection rate of emergency bolt kit vs. non-emergency conventional implanted silver bearing external ventricular drainage catheters

Jens Fichtner, Astrid Jilch, Jürgen Beck, Andreas Raabe & Werner J. Z'Graggen
Objective: Bolt kit systems are increasingly used as an alternative to conventional external drainage systems. However, as in conventional implanted EVD catheters, contact between the ventricular system and skin surface and cerebrospinal fluid infection (CSF) is possible. Since 2009 we regularly utilize[for full text, please go to the a.m. URL]