Uniform exponential growth of non-positively curved groups

The ping-pong lemma was introduced by Klein in the late 1800s to show that certain subgroups of isometries of hyperbolic 3-space are free and remains one of very few tools that certify when a pair of group elements generate a free subgroup or semigroup. Quantitatively applying the ping-pong lemma to more general group actions on metric spaces requires a blend of understanding the large-scale global geometry of the underlying space with local combinatorial and dynamical...
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