HYPOCRETIN/OREXIN AND THE VENTRAL MIDBRAIN: TOPOGRAPHY AND FUNCTION ASSOCIATED WITH PSYCHOSTIMULANT-TAKING AND AFFECT

Abuse of psychostimulants including cocaine and new synthetic formulations remains an international public health problem and economic burden. Addiction develops consequential to positive and negative drives that underlie “getting” and “staying” high. Dopamine (DA), arising from ventral tegmental area (VTA), projects to ventral striatal targets to encode reward signals and reward prediction. Mesolimbic DA is implicated in both the immediate rewarding effects of psychostimulants, and its hypoactivity underlies negative affect as drug levels decline. Accordingly,...
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