Proton velocity ring-driven instabilities in the inner magnetosphere: Linear theory and particle-in-cell simulations

Kyungguk Min & Kaijun Liu
Linear dispersion theory and electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are used to investigate linear growth and nonlinear saturation of the proton velocity ring-driven instabilities, namely, ion Bernstein instability and Alfven-cyclotron instability, which lead to fast magnetosonic waves and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the inner magnetosphere, respectively. The proton velocity distribution is assumed to consist of 10% of a ring distribution and 90% of a low-temperature Maxwellian background. Here two cases with ring speeds v(r)/v(A)=1 and...
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