Gap Formation Around 0.5 Omega(e) in the Whistler-Mode Waves Due To the Plateau-Like Shape in the Parallel Electron Distribution: 2D PIC Simulations

Huayue Chen, Xinliang Gao, Quanming Lu, Kai Fan, Yangguang Ke, Xueyi Wang & Shui Wang
The power gap around 0.5 Omega(e) (where Omega(e) is the equatorial electron gyrofrequency) of whistler-mode waves is commonly observed in the Earth's inner magnetosphere, but its generation mechanism is still under debate. By performing two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations in a uniform background magnetic field, we investigate the spectral properties of whistler-mode waves excited by temperature anisotropic electrons. The waves have positive growth rates in a wide range of normal angles (theta approximate to 0 degrees-35 degrees),...
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