Biosynthesis of the proteasome inhibitor syringolin A: The ureido group joining two amino acids originates from bicarbonate

Christina Ramel, Micha Tobler, Martin Meyer, Laurent Bigler, Marc-Olivier Ebert, Barbara Schellenberg & Robert Dudler
Background Syringolin A, an important virulence factor in the interaction of the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a with its host plant Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), was recently shown to irreversibly inhibit eukaryotic proteasomes by a novel mechanism. Syringolin A is synthesized by a mixed non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthetase and consists of a tripeptide part including a twelve-membered ring with an N-terminal valine that is joined to a second valine via a very unusual ureido...
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