Background Free-Tropospheric Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations at Mixed-Phase Cloud Conditions

Larissa Lacher, Paul J. DeMott, Ezra J. Levin, Kaitlyn J. Suski, Yvonne Boose, Assaf Zipori, Erik Herrmann, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Martin Steinbacher, Ellen Gute, Jonathan P.D. Abbatt, Ulrike Lohmann & Zamin A Kanji
Clouds containing ice are vital for precipitation formation and are important in determining the Earth's radiative budget. However, primary formation of ice in clouds is not fully understood. In the presence of ice nucleating particles (INPs), the phase change to ice is promoted, but identification and quantification of INPs in a natural environment remains challenging because of their low numbers. In this paper, we quantify INP number concentrations in the free troposphere (FT) as measured...
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