### Finding Sparser Directed Spanners

Piotr Berman, Sofya Raskhodnikova & Ge Ruan
A spanner of a graph is a sparse subgraph that approximately preserves distances in the original graph. More precisely, a subgraph $H = (V,E_H)$ is a $k$-spanner of a graph $G=(V,E)$ if for every pair of vertices $u,v \in V$, the shortest path distance $dist_H(u,v)$ from $u$ to $v$ in $H$ is at most $k.dist_G(u,v)$. We focus on spanners of directed graphs and a related notion of transitive-closure spanners. The latter captures the idea that...