Order-Invariant MSO is Stronger than Counting MSO in the Finite

Tobias Ganzow & Sasha Rubin
We compare the expressiveness of two extensions of monadic second-order logic (MSO) over the class of finite structures. The first, counting monadic second-order logic (CMSO), extends MSO with first-order modulo-counting quantifiers, allowing the expression of queries like ``the number of elements in the structure is even''. The second extension allows the use of an additional binary predicate, not contained in the signature of the queried structure, that must be interpreted as an arbitrary linear order...