The Traveling Salesman Problem under Squared Euclidean Distances

Fred Van Nijnatten, René Sitters, Gerhard J. Woeginger, Alexander Wolff & Mark De Berg
Let $P$ be a set of points in $\Reals^d$, and let $\alpha \ge 1$ be a real number. We define the distance between two points $p,q\in P$ as $|pq|^{\alpha}$, where $|pq|$ denotes the standard Euclidean distance between $p$ and $q$. We denote the traveling salesman problem under this distance function by \tsp($d,\alpha$). We design a 5-approximation algorithm for \tsp(2,2) and generalize this result to obtain an approximation factor of $3^{\alpha-1}+\sqrt{6}^{\,\alpha}\!/3$ for $d=2$ and all $\alpha\ge2$....