### Approximate Shortest Paths Avoiding a Failed Vertex: Optimal Size Data Structures for Unweighted Graphs

Neelesh Khanna & Surender Baswana
Let $G=(V,E)$ be any undirected graph on $V$ vertices and $E$ edges. A path $\textbf{P}$ between any two vertices $u,v\in V$ is said to be $t$-approximate shortest path if its length is at most $t$ times the length of the shortest path between $u$ and $v$. We consider the problem of building a compact data structure for a given graph $G$ which is capable of answering the following query for any $u,v,z\in V$ and $t>1$....