Unsatisfiable Linear CNF Formulas Are Large and Complex

Dominik Scheder
We call a CNF formula {\em linear} if any two clauses have at most one variable in common. We show that there exist unsatisfiable linear $k$-CNF formulas with at most $4k^24^k$ clauses, and on the other hand, any linear $k$-CNF formula with at most $\frac{4^k}{8e^2k^2}$ clauses is satisfiable. The upper bound uses probabilistic means, and we have no explicit construction coming even close to it. One reason for this is that unsatisfiable linear formulas exhibit...