Real Computation with Least Discrete Advice: A Complexity Theory of Nonuniform Computability

Martin Ziegler
It is folklore particularly in numerical and computer sciences that, instead of solving some general problem $f:A\to B$, additional structural information about the input $x\in A$ (that is any kind of promise that $x$ belongs to a certain subset $A'\subseteq A$) should be taken advantage of. Some examples from real number computation show that such discrete advice can even make the difference between computability and uncomputability. We turn this into a both topological and combinatorial...