Access contracts: a dynamic approach to object-oriented access protection

Janina Voigt
In object-oriented (OO) programming, variables do not contain objects directly but addresses of objects on the heap. Thus, several variables can point to the same object; we call this aliasing. Aliasing is a central feature of OO programming that enables efficient sharing of objects across a system. This is essential for the implementation of many programming idioms, such as iterators. On the other hand, aliasing reduces modularity and encapsulation, making programs difficult to understand, debug...
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