Agroecological farming, flowering phenology and the pollinator-herbivore-parasitoid nexus regulate non-crop plant reproduction

Lucie Monticelli, Audrey Labonté, Mélinda Turpin, Luc Biju-Duval, Emeline Felten, Emilien Laurent, Annick Matejicek, Eric Vieren, Violaine Deytieux, Stéphane Cordeau & Adam Vanbergen
Agroecological farming uses crop and non-crop plant biodiversity to promote beneficial insects supplying pollination and biocontrol services to crops. Non-crop plants (sown or weeds) are integral to supporting these beneficial insect species interactions. How the uplift of biotic complexity by agroecological management (crop diversification, ecological infrastructure) influences mutualistic and antagonistic insect interactions regulating the reproduction of non-crop plants remains less understood. Using a pesticide-free farm-scale (125 ha) agroecological experiment, we tested how the individual reproduction...
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