Data from: All-trans retinoic acid disrupts development in ex vivo cultured fetal rat testes. II: modulation of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate toxicity

Daniel J. Spade, Susan J. Hall, Jeremy D. Wortzel, Gerardo Reyes & Kim Boekelheide
Humans are universally exposed to low levels of phthalate esters (phthalates), which are used to plasticize polyvinyl chloride. Phthalates exert adverse effects on the development of seminiferous cords in the fetal testis through unknown toxicity pathways. To investigate the hypothesis that phthalates alter seminiferous cord development by disrupting retinoic acid signaling in the fetal testis, gestational day 15 fetal rat testes were exposed for 1-3 days to 10-6 M all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) alone or...
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