Antipredator responses of embryos and larval fathead minnows

Jessica Ward & Chris Crowder
Most research on embryonic learning and behavior in aquatic vertebrates has focused on fitness benefits after hatching, but the ability of embryos to perceive and respond to environmental stimuli may also have immediate adaptive value. Here, we examined whether fathead minnow embryos, Pimephales promelas, detect and respond to cues indicative of predation risk, and whether the embryonic environment influences behavior after hatching. We compared the behavior of 5-day post-fertilization (dpf) embryos reared in the presence...
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