Imaging of the vulnerable carotid plaque: role of imaging techniques and a research agenda

Iacopo Fabiani, Carlo Palombo, Davide Caramella, Jan Nilsson & Raffaele De Caterina
Objectives: Atherothrombosis in the carotid arteries is a main cause of ischemic stroke, and may depend on plaque propensity to complicate with rupture or erosion, in turn related to qualitative features amenable to in vivo imaging. This would provide an opportunity for risk stratification and – potentially – local treatment of more “vulnerable” plaques. We here review current information on this topic. Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature for concepts derived from pathophysiological, histopathological and...
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