Biotic predictors with phenological information improve range estimates for migrating monarch butterflies in Mexico

Jamie M. Kass, Robert P. Anderson, Alejandro Espinosa-Lucas, Verónica Juárez-Jaimes, Esteban Martínez-Salas, Francisco Botello, Gloria Tavera, José Juan Flores-Martínez & Víctor Sánchez-Cordero
Although long-standing theory suggests that biotic variables are only relevant at local scales for explaining the patterns of species’ distributions, recent studies have demonstrated improvements to species distribution models (SDMs) by incorporating predictor variables informed by biotic interactions. However, some key methodological questions remain, such as which kinds of interactions are permitted to include in these models, how to incorporate the effects of multiple interacting species, and how to account for interactions that may have...
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